Native Plant Society - NPSOregon.org
Washington Native Plant Society - WNPS.org
Wisconsin Aquatic Plant Policy - download
to Grow, Lincoln County Native Plants that attract birds and can
be found in the nursery trade
Common Name and Botanical Name.
Thanks to Master Gardener Bruce Waugh for generously sharing this information!
aggressive, (D) dry, well drained soils, (L) landscape plants with
particular value due to their beauty, an admittedly subjective opinion,
(S) sun, (SH) shade, (T) thorned, (W) will take wet soils. REMEMBER
TO PLANT HEDGEROWS TO ATTRACT AND PROTECT BIRDS that
are attracted to each species. Not an exclusive list.
Douglas Fir Pseudotsuga mensiesii: (S)
Shade intolerant when young, good wind resistance. Pine siskins, Chickadees,
Nuthatches, Creepers. Douglas Fir USDA
Shore Pine Pinus contorta: (S)
Grosbeaks, Chickadees, Pigeons, Jays, Juncos, Nuthatches, Finches, Pine
siskins, Bushtits, Kinglets, Woodpeckers. Shore Pine USDA
Western Yew Taxus brevifolia: (SH) Takes deep
shade. Slow grower. Western Yew USDA
Western Red Cedar Thuja plicata: (W) Will tolerate
wet soils, difficult to grow plants beneath. Grosbeaks, Sparrows, Waxwings,
Nuthatches, Pine siskins. Western Red Cedar USDA
Western Hemlock Tsuga heterophylla: (SH) Takes
deep shade. Juncos, Finches. Western Hemlock USDA
Wax Myrtle Myrica californica: Flickers, Chickadees,
Waxwings, Warblers, Robins. Wax
Myrtle USDA (Morella californica)
Large deciduous trees:
Alder Alnus rubra: (W) Fast growing, fixes nitrogen
in soil. Ducks, Widgeons, Bushtits, Kinglets, Finches, Pine siskins, Vireos,
Warblers, Chickadees, Woodpeckers, Pigeons. Alder USDA
Big Leaf Maple Acer macrophyllum: (W) Difficult
to grow plants beneath. Woodpeckers, Nuthatches, Sparrows, Finches, Pine
siskins, Warblers, Vireos. Big Leaf Maple USDA
deciduous trees/large deciduous shrubs:
Cascara Rhamnus purshiana: (L) Pretty patio
tree. Don't plant over decks as fall fruits stain black. Waxwings,
Pigeons, Robins, Thrushes, Finches, Jays. Cascara
USDA (Frangula purshiana)
Crab Apple Malus fusca: (D) (S) Geese, Woodpeckers,
Sapsuckers, Jays, Robins, Waxwings, Towhees, Finches, Sparrows, Hummingbirds. Crab
Coast Willow Salix hookeriana: (W) Birds attracted
to insects on leaves. Coast Willow USDA
Creek Dogwood Cornus stolonifera: (L) (W) Striking
red winter twig color on newer growth, Vireos, Warblers, Robins, Flickers,
Flycatchers, Wood Ducks, Finches, Quail. Creek
Dogwood USDA (Cornus sericea)
Hawthorn Crataegus douglasii: (T) Robins, Waxwings,
Wood Ducks, Thrushes. Hawthorn USDA
Hazelnut Corylus cornuta: Jays. Hazelnut USDA
Indian Plum Oemleria cerasiformis: Very early
flowering. Jays, Robins, Chickadees. Indian Plum USDA
Oceanspray Holodiscus discolor: (D) Chickadees,
Bushtits. Oceanspray USDA
Pacific Ninebark Physocarpus capitatus: (S) Pretty
winter bark. Pacific Ninebark USDA
Red Elderberry Sambucus racemosa pubens: (W)
Fast growing tropical looking. Sparrows, Thrushes, Warblers, Jays, Tanagers,
Grosbeaks, Sapsuckers, Woodpeckers. Red Elderberry USDA
Red Flowering Currant Ribes sanguineum: (D) (L)
(S) Hummingbirds. Summer watering after the first year of transplanting
may kill. Red Flowering Currant USDA
Salmonberry Rubus spectabilis: (A) (T) Best in
middle of hedgerow. Chickadees, Grosbeaks, Jays, Sparrows, Tanagers, Towhees,
Waxwings, Thrushes, Woodpeckers, Wrens, Hummingbirds. Swainson's thrush
is known as the 'salmonberry bird' in native languages. Salmonberry USDA
Serviceberry Amelanchier alnifolia: (D) (L) (S)
Woodpeckers, Chickadees, Thrushes, Towhees, Tanagers, Grosbeaks, Finches,
Juncos, Waxwings. Serviceberry USDA
Twinberry Lonicera involucrata: (W) Grosbeaks,
Juncos, Waxwings, Thrushes, Towhees, Flickers, Finches, Quail, Hummingbirds. Twinberry
Thimbleberry Rubus parviflorus: (A) Our native
raspberry, thornless, See Salmonberry. Thimbleberry USDA
Vine Maple Acer circinatum: (L) Very adaptable
cousin to Japanese Maple. Grosbeaks, Vireos, Woodpeckers, Nuthatches, Finches,
Quail. Vine Maple USDA
Small evergreen shrubs:
Evergreen Huckleberry Vaccinium ovatum: (L) Waxwings,
Juncos, Jays, Chickadees. Evergreen Huckleberry USDA
Salal Gaultheria shallon: (A) Wrens, Thrushes, Juncos,
Tall Oregon Grape Mahonia aquifolium: (L) Robins,
Finches, Towhees, Hummingbirds. Tall Oregon Grape USDA
Small deciduous shrubs:
Deciduous Huckleberry Vaccinium parvifolium: (L)
Robins, Jays. Deciduous Huckleberry USDA
Devils Club Oplopanax horridus: (L) (SH) (T) (W)
Bears like the berries too: Unique. Devils Club USDA
Snowberry Symphoricarpos albus: (A) Winter berries,
Juncos, Chickadees, Thrushes. Snowberry USDA
Spirea Spiraea douglasii: (A) (S) (W) Pretty pink
flowers, provides dense cover. Spirea
Wild Roses Rosa spp.: (A) (S) (T) Hummingbirds, Juncos,
Grosbeaks, Quail, Thrushes.
Perennials, Ground Covers, Grasses, and a Vine!
Bleeding Heart Dicentra formosa: (L) (SH) Flowers
last longer than the ornamental variety. Bleeding Heart USDA
Bunchberry Cornus canadensis/unalaschkensis: (L)
(SH) Needs humus rich soil. Bunchberry USDA
California Poppy Eschscholtzia californica: (A) (L)
(S) Self seeds. California Poppy USDA
Coast Penstemon Penstemon serrulatus: (D) (L) (S) Coast
Columbine Aquilega formosa: (L) Short lived but can
self seed. Hybridizes readily. Columbine USDA
Common Rush Juncus effusus: (A) (W) Common Rush USDA
Fringecup Tellima grandiflora: (A) (L) (SH) Fragrant,
looks good year round. Fringecup USDA
Goat's Beard Aruncus sylvester: (L) (SH) (W) Tall,
stable looking, herbaceous perennial. Goat's
Beard USDA (Aruncus dioicus)
Honeysuckle Lonicera ciliosa: (L) (S) Our native
vine with orange flowers. Honeysuckle USDA
Kinnikinnick Arctostaphylos uva-ursi: (L) (D) (S) Kinnikinnick
Lupine Lupinus spp.: (L) Slugs love. Lupine USDA
Maybud Maianthemum dilatatum: (A) (SH) (W) Sitka
spruce forest groundcover. Maybud USDA
Miner's Lettuce Claytonia sibirica: (A) Not only
a seed source for birds but also a choice overwintering salad green for bi-pedal
humanoids. Miner's Lettuce USDA
Slough Sedge Carex obnupta: (A) (W) Slough Sedge
Strawberry Fragaria chiloensis: (A) Strawberry USDA
Tufted Hairgrass Deschampsia cespitosa: (S) Tufted
Wood Sorrel Oxalis oregana: (A) (SH) Wood
Plant Society of Oregon.
lists per plant and also a good source for natives.
of the Pacific Northwest Coast
and Mackinnon, Best ethnobotanical field guide.
Guide to Western Birds
A Place for Wildlife
Department of Fish and Wildlife
Plants in the Coastal Garden
Pettinger, Design ideas and companion plant lists.
With Native Plants
Kruckeberg, The 'Bible' of NW native gardening.
Cox, Excellent starter book. Companion plant lists.
Plants of Oregon/Washington
in Your Backyard
Dobkin and Wheye
Sources for buying native plants: cheap$,
Most 'regular' nurseries now carry at
least some natives.
The following usually have a variety of natives to choose from.
those who like to grow their own, many natives are easy to propagate.
Grow Your Own Native Landscape, Michael Leigh
Propagation of Pacific Northwest Natives, Rose Chaculski and Haase
the request of PADL, the above information was first presented on International
Migratory Bird Day on Saturday, May 13, 2006 by Master Gardener Bruce
Waugh - who has been gardening on the Oregon Coast for over 25 years
- former native plant gardener at the Oregon Coast Aquarium and a member
of the Lincoln County Mycological Society, Oregon Native Plant Society
and The Nature Conservancy. Oregon State University Extension
Service manages the Master Gardener program.
Added note about huckleberries for Native Americans:
The Huckleberry Story: A Bridge Between Culture and Science - Oregon State
Photo: Evergreen Huckleberry (Washington State education)
Publications about plants
GardenSmart Oregon a guide to non-invasive plants
The publication is a project of the Stop
the Invasion campaign: Oregonians taking action to protect our state from invasive
species. Available as a downloadable file: http://oregoninvasiveshotline.org
to Protect Devils Lake Oregon
Oregon State University Extension
Service and the Devils Lake Water Improvement District
Information includes Shoreline
Structures, Plants, Plants suggested for use in Devils Lake Landscapes - Trees,
Ground Covers, Shrubs, Additional shrubs and shrub-trees, Are Lawns and Lakes
A little outdated as recommends English holly - which is considered an invasive.
Available at the DLWID office
Plant Materials for Landscaping - A List of Plants for the Pacific Northwest
A Pacific Northwest
Cooperative Extension Publication - Oregon • Washington • Idaho
Classified by: plant height, manner of growth, common name, botanical name, flowering
habits, heardiness zones
Prepared by Donald J. Mariel, chairman of the Department of Landscape Architecture,
retired, and George N. Fredeen, formerly associate professor of landscape architecture,
Oregon State University. It is co-published by the Extension services of Oregon
State University, Washington State University, and the University of Idaho.
Available at the DLWID office
of Devils Lake by Bob Storer, former Devils Lake Water Improvement District
Aquatic plants are a natural element of lake ecosystems and serve many important
1) providing oxygen;
2) stabilizing shorelines and bottom sediments;
3) providing habitat for fish, amphibians, invertebrates, birds, and mammals;
4) reducing nutrients through uptake; and preventing algal blooms.
Devils Lake has a long history of aquatic plant problems. Macrophytes (large
vascular aquatic plants) obtain their nutrients from bottom sediments. Aquatic
plants will always be a management issue for Devils Lake due to the fact that
the lake is very shallow and has an abundance of rich nutrients in the bottom
sediments. Devils Lake has also been plagued over the years with several invasive
or non-native plant species. Invasive nonnative weeds are plants that have been
introduced to this region through human activities, and due to aggressive growth
patterns and lack of natural enemies in this region, spread rapidly into native
plant habitats. This can reduce habitat diversity, food, and shelter for many
fish and wildlife species, and the ability of the natural environment to perform
a wide variety of important ecological functions.
Two of the most aggressive nonnative aquatic plant species that have been present
in Devils Lake include: Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and Brazilian
elodea (Egeria densa). Eurasian watermilfoil reproduces vegetatively. Its invasiveness
stems from its ability to regrow from tiny fragments. This exotic species has
been known to grow up to 20 feet in length! In the years following the introduction
of grass carp there was a drastic change in plant community composition in Devils
Lake. Brazilian elodea invaded the lake and completely displaced Eurasian watermilfoil.
It is interesting to note that Devils Lake has had native varieties of both of
these species. The native species typically are not as aggressive as non-natives
and are known for remaining in a relatively balanced setting. Other native species
known to have recently inhabited the lake include: Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum),
Waterweed or common elodea (Elodea canadensis), Water celery (Vallisneria americana),
and several species of pondweeds (Potamogeton spp.).
Submerged and floating-leaved plants are rooted in the lake bed with their foliage
either suspended below the surface, floating upon it, or both. Pondweeds are
a large, variable genera composed of primarily submergent and floating-leaved
plants. The stems arise from fibrous roots and are flexible. Pondweeds will often
have radically different submergent and floating leaves on the same plant. Underwater
leaves are thin and delicate, and floating leaves are tough, leathery, and oval
in shape. The flowers are usually in oblong or ball-like species that may be
above or just below the water's surface. The habitats of various species of pondweeds
vary, but typically pondweeds are found in lakes to a depth of 12 to 15 feet.
Pondweeds are an important food source for many waterfowl species. They may also
pose a nuisance by forming dense growth, curtailing the recreational uses of
The Devils Lake Water Improvement District (DLWID) contracted with researchers
from Portland State University during 1995-1996 to conduct a revegetation and
water quality study. This revegetation study was conducted to determine whether
a revegetated lakebed is more resistant to invasion and establishment of Brazilian
elodea than an unvegetated lake bed. Grass carp exclosures were established in
the northwest arm of the lake in May 1995.
Four planting treatments were applied to the exclosures:
1) Sago pondweed (Potamogeton pectinatus)
2) Water celery (Vallisneria americana)
3) Sago pondweed plus water celery, and
4) a control with no planting
The revegetation study indicated that the lake bed will become quickly revegetated
if grass carp are removed from the lake. A number of native species colonized
the grass carp exclosures. Planting the exclosures did not result in establishment
of the planted species. Rather, "volunteer" species dominated the exclosures.
Brazilian elodea, when introduced into the exclosures, did not become established.
Eurasian watermilfoil did establish in one exclosure as a volunteer species.
A stand of low-growing waterwort (Elatine sp.) was present within the exclosures
in 1995. Waterwort was even found outside the exclosures, suggesting that it
is relatively unpalatable for grass carp. Other species commonly found in the
exclosures included: Najas spp., Nitella spp., and Calitriche spp.
Year-to-year changes in the composition of the macrophyte community in the exclosures
indicated that plant community composition is highly dynamic in the short-term,
and that development of a stable plant community after grass carp removal may
require several years. We do know now that too many grass carp were introduced
into Devils Lake. As a result, the complete eradication of all the submersed
aquatic plants has occurred. This has subsequently led to the drastic decline
in the warmwater fishery and the drastic increase in the frequency and severity
of algal blooms. So where do we go from here? The lake is out of balance once
again, and I believe we need to re-establish a balanced population of native
aquatic plants. This in terms of lake and watershed management techniques is
easier said than done. We also need to develop and permanently install warning
signs at all public boat launch areas around the lake. These signs would help
to educate and alert boaters about the problems associated with nonnative aquatic
plant species. For example, Eurasian watermilfoil is commonly spread by careless
boaters who do not remove milfoil fragments from their boat or trailer when leaving
an infested lake. Aquatic plant management should be approached in an integrated
manner to ensure balance of uses and protection of natural resources - there
are no quick fixes.
There are four types of aquatic plant control techniques: physical, chemical,
mechanical, and biological. Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages.
The most effective long-term control of aquatic plants assesses a variety of
control measures in combination with source controls of sediment and nutrients.
Controlling watershed sources through the use of best management practices (BMPs)
is essential to the long-term health and sustainability of a lake ecosystem.
A lake cannot be all things to all people. Dependent upon where you live and
how you use the lake may very well determine how you will view and accept or
tolerate certain types of plants in various locations throughout the lake. A
bass fisher welcomes a diverse plant community to provide structure and habitat
for the fishery. A water-skier or sailboat owner may not. There are some aquatic
plants and emergent species that only grow in the nearshore areas such as pondlilies
and yellow iris and several submergent species that typically grow relatively
low in relation to the bottom. These include: waterweed or elodea, bushy pondweed
or naiad, and nitella spp. These species might be ideally suited in Devils Lake.
They have the potential to provide the plant benefit without significantly impacting
the recreational uses of the lake. Only time may perhaps tell what will become
of the aquatic plant community composition in Devils Lake. I believe we must
continue to educate, monitor, and evaluate.
In some respects, the future aquatic plant composition will not be up to us.
On the other hand, we contribute to the problem and we must begin to change our
behaviors. Simple things we all can do:
maintain your on-site septic system
cover up exposed soil areas
reduce the amount of fertilizer use on lawns and gardens and
maintain or replant a native vegetative buffer along the lake shoreline.
Green Thumb Watershed Education Program -
program of the Preservation Association of Devils Lake (PADL)
Copyright © 2003-2010 Preservation Association of Devils Lake (PADL)
P.O. Box 36
Lincoln City, OR 97367